Cris Sakamoto

Sociology + Data + Maps

View My GitHub Profile


Here you can find information about my current and past works.

Current and Forthcoming Works


Title: “Hexagons, Scenes, Art, and Jobs: The New Urban Geography of Cultural Enterprises and Employment Opportunities”


This dissertation explores the reciprocal relationship between the arts and employment. This relationship is characterized by a combination of a “multiplier effect” in which one additional arts job attracts many jobs in other industries, and an “audience effect” in which several jobs in other industries are necessary in order to form an audience large enough to attract additional artists. Using the County Business Patterns dataset from the US Census Bureau, this dissertation explores how employment in the arts affects the non-arts industries and vice versa in 481 urban areas from 1998 to 2016. The main statistical methods usßed in this research are cross-lagged regressions, followed by fixed-effect meta-analysis. When comparing the arts to non-arts industries in general, results indicate that in both the short and long terms, the multiplier/audience effects hold. When comparing the arts to business services and high-tech industries individually, results showed a much stronger relationship between the arts and business services than for arts and high-tech. As a relatively young industry, high-tech does not yet present an arts multiplier, but it does present higher audience effects than the business services industries, indicating that while artists are not yet attracting high-tech jobs, high-tech jobs are strongly attracting the arts. In all three analyses, the multiplier/audience effects hold better for larger urban areas than for medium, followed by smaller sized urban areas. In addition, this dissertation proposes data selection and transformation methods by overlapping the urban areas and ZIP code maps in order to make the official data units into geographically and time consistent hexagons.

Forthcoming Paper: Recalculating Polygon Data as Hexagons for Standardized Analyses

Abstract: Analytic issues arise when comparing administrative units of different shapes and sizes, such as the ZIP code: some ZIP codes cover several square miles, while others cover the footprint of a single building. How can we modify the units of analysis and recalculate the data fairly and evenly so that different areas become more comparable? In this paper, I share how to transform Census industry data from ZIP codes to hexagons as preparation for analysis.

Forthcoming Paper: Reconciling ZIP Code Boundary Changes

Abstract: ZIP codes change all the time. Many publicly available data sets are available at the ZIP code level. However, the ZIP code boundary changes may cause us to not notice that we’ve been comparing different units, when it doesn’t seem like it. In this paper, I share how I tackled this issue and created a more standard dataset by comparing two ZIP code boundary maps.

Forthcoming Paper: What Drives Growth of Jobs and the Arts?

Abstract: In the classical economic view, jobs attract workers to cities, and as a result, the city grows, as complementary amenities, such as restaurants, shops, and entertainment also flourish. Thus, in the traditional view, jobs are the main factor for city growth. In this study, we consider that the arts also attract workers to a city, and thus following the development of non-arts related industries in the region due to the availability of labor. Therefore, do cities grow primarily due to the jobs created by the industries, or do cities also grow due to the presence of arts amenities and entertainment that are seen as essential to the workers before they choose where to live? In this research, we use the Country Business Patterns (CBP) data from the American census to analyze the relationship between the growth of the arts as related to other industries. We use cross-lagged regressions on nineteen years of data in more than 15.000 zip codes in the US. Results point that the arts are important drivers to the growth of cities.

Past Works

Master Thesis: “Interculturality and Cultural Diversity in Study and Work Group in Europe”. 2012. Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Maria Ester de Freitas. (Portuguese)


Abstract: In an increasingly interconnected and global world, this research brings the analysis of the interaction of multicultural groups in three different organizations in Europe. In two organizations, the research had auto-ethnographic nature, while in the third organization, thirteen in-depth interviews with trainees and professionals were conducted in a multicultural work environment, while considering the theory of symbolic interactionism as the basis of analysis at the micro level of social relations. The studies took place within the context of expatriation and international experiences in which young people from different parts of the world move to another country in order to experience and learn about other cultures, develop their careers, personally, academically and professionally. Encounters of people from different cultures within the CEMS group and the organizations involved are reported and analyzed in this study in order to understand the dynamics and changes that occur when different cultures meet.
Methodology: Auto-ethnography and Interviews

Kirschbaum, Charles; Sakamoto, Cristina; Vasconcelos, Flavio C. Repente as organizational improvisation metaphor: competition and cooperation relations. O&S, V. 21, no.68, pp 815-834. 2014. (Portuguese)


Abstract: The Jazz metaphor was introduced in Organizational Studies aiming to en- courage the adoption of practices that could lead to a greater degree of improvisation. This appropriation was made assuming a high degree of co- operation, as opposed to highly formalized organizations where routines are taken as rigid routines, source of inertia. This article appropriates from this literature, seeking first to extend the idea of organizational routines, emphasizing the interpre- tationist dimension, pointing out the role of conflict and finally reviewing the heuristic value of the dichotomy between “collapse of sensemaking” and “sensemaking”. This reappropriation allows us to prepare the ground for the introduction and analysis of the Repente metaphor and subsequently to compare it with the metaphor of Jazz. We attempt to show how the structures of Repente allow improvisation while protecting each opponent’s space. This setting is important when one takes conflict as the pre- dominant vector for improvisation.

Bachelor Thesis: SAKAMOTO, C. Y. (2007) Cia da Saúde: Refeições Congeladas. EAESP/FGV. Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Elisa Larroudé and Prof. Dr. Zilma Borges.

Abstract: Business plan for a healthy frozen food company.

Research Project: SAKAMOTO, C. Y. (2005) Improvisação nas Artes e nas Organizações: Relações de Competição e Cooperação. Research Project for PIBIC/CNPq, presented to GVResearch. Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Charles Kirschbaum.

Abstract: see reference above

Data Maps Work Bio